Other vitamins, such as A, D, E, and K, are fat-soluble. It is not good to consume them in high doses because the body retains the excess. Minerals can also be problematic in large doses. Excess iron can be toxic and cause symptoms such as fatigue, joint pain, and depression.
In some cases, premenopausal women are advised to take iron supplements, but continuing them after menopause, unless needed, can lead to overeating. Too much iron can cause symptoms such as fatigue, joint pain, and depression. Too much calcium supplements can cause kidney stones and increase the risk of prostate cancer and heart disease. Too much vitamin C or zinc can cause nausea, diarrhea, and stomach cramps.
Excess selenium can cause hair loss, gastrointestinal disorders, fatigue, and mild nerve damage. Any ingredient in a multivitamin supplement can be toxic in large quantities, but the most serious risk comes from iron or calcium. Talk to your doctor about any supplements you are taking, including vitamins and minerals, and also about the dosage you are taking. For example, vitamins E and K may increase the risk of bleeding if you're already taking a blood-thinning medication.
Before taking any vitamin or mineral supplement, make sure it's safe for you and doesn't interact with any of your medications. For example, vitamin D deficiencies are often treated with high-dose vitamin D injections or supplements that provide more than 50,000 IU of vitamin D, much more than the recommended amount (2). However, there has been an increase in the consumption of fortified foods, from orange juice enriched with calcium and vitamin D to breakfast cereals or sports drinks packed with additional vitamins, minerals or electrolytes. You may also have chronic headaches, dizziness, swelling of your legs, itchy and scaly skin, hair loss, and joint pain.
While vitamin K has a low potential for toxicity, it can interact with certain medications, such as warfarin and antibiotics (. Water-soluble vitamins are easily excreted from the body, while fat-soluble vitamins can be stored in tissues. Keep in mind that these potentially life-threatening side effects are associated with taking exceptionally high doses of vitamins. Vitamins A, D, E and K are fat-soluble.
They should not be taken in high doses because the body stores the excess and, although rare, can cause toxicity. Consumers are bombarded with health information that tells them that taking high doses of certain vitamins can benefit their health in many ways. Overdosing on certain vitamins can lead to serious complications and, in rare circumstances, even death. While most supplement bottles offer recommendations on how much vitamin to take per day, needs may vary from person to person.
Dwyer says that vitamin D, calcium and folic acid are three nutrients that you can consume in excess, especially through supplements. People with health problems can experience even more serious reactions when taking too much of a vitamin.